Map - Afghanistan (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan)

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Afghanistan (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan)

Flag of Afghanistan
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari: افغانستان, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 km2 and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.

Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviets, and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires". The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.

The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence, eventually becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until almost 50 years later when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and then a Soviet Union protectorate. This evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years. The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, and a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed.

Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million, mostly composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 167th out of 186 countries in a 2016 report from the International Monetary Fund.

The name Afghānistān (افغانستان) is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, which is documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam. The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."

 
Currency / Language 
ISO Currency Symbol Significant figures
AFN Afghan afghani ؋ 2
ISO Language
PS Pashto language
FA Persian language
TK Turkmen language
UZ Uzbek language
Neighbourhood - Country  

Map - Afghanistan (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan)

Latitude / Longitude : 33° 0' 0" N / 66° 0' 0" E | Time zone : UTC+4:30 | Currency : AFN | Telephone : 93  

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Education
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980-2015
Afghanistan-Health-Kabul Military Hospital - panoramio
Health
Kabul Military Hospital - panoramio
Afghanistan-Rail-Rail crossing in northern Afghanistan
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Rail crossing in northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan-Mining-Lapis Lazuli from Afganistan
Mining
Lapis Lazuli from Afganistan
Afghanistan-Air-Ariana Afghan A310-300 F-GEMO
Air
Ariana Afghan A310-300 F-GEMO
Afghanistan-Economy-Afghan market teeming with vendors and shoppers 2-4-09
Economy
Afghan market teeming with vendors and shoppers 2-4-09
Afghanistan-Economy-Afghanistan, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970-2010
Economy
Afghanistan, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970-2010
Afghanistan-Economy-Afghan women at a textile factory in Kabul
Economy
Afghan women at a textile factory in Kabul
Afghanistan-Economy-Kabul carpet seller 2
Economy
Kabul carpet seller 2
Afghanistan-Economy-Afghan pomegranate processing
Economy
Afghan pomegranate processing
Afghanistan-Law enforcement-ANP trucks in Kunar
Law enforcement
ANP trucks in Kunar
Afghanistan-Foreign relations and military-First set of Afghan UH-60A Black Hawks
Foreign relations and military
First set of Afghan UH-60A Black Hawks
Afghanistan-Administrative divisions-Afghanistan provinces numbered
Administrative divisions
Afghanistan provinces numbered
Afghanistan-Elections and parties-Presidential Palace - panoramio (7)
Elections and parties
Presidential Palace - panoramio (7)
Afghanistan-Elections and parties-Secretary Kerry meets Abdullah and Ghani 2014
Elections and parties
Secretary Kerry meets Abdullah and Ghani 2014
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Governance
New Afghan Parliament Building
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Ethnic groups
US Army ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan -- circa 2001-09
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Geography of Afghanistan
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Geography
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