Map - Burma (Union of Burma)

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Burma (Union of Burma)

Flag of Myanmar
Myanmar (English pronunciation below; ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676578 km2 in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city and former capital is Yangon (Rangoon). Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1997.

Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia. The early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence in 1948, as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party.

For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, however, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, and religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics.

Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP (nominal) stood at US$56.7 billion and its GDP (PPP) at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. , Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index.

Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology. The terms are also popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma.

In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar". The renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.

In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular".

The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" . Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead.

In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group. Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be ' or ' . The name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century.

Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma (Myanmar)" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names. The government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s generally uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic officially uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website. The United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Australia, Russia, Germany, China, India, Bangladesh, Norway, Japan and Switzerland. 
Currency / Language 
ISO Currency Symbol Significant figures
MMK Myanmar kyat Ks 2
ISO Language
MY Burmese language
Neighbourhood - Country  

Map - Burma (Union of Burma)

Latitude / Longitude : 21° 0' 0" N / 96° 0' 0" E | Time zone : UTC+6:30 | Currency : MMK | Telephone : 95  

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Burma-Taungoo and colonialism-Map of Taungoo Empire (1580)
Taungoo and colonialism
Map of Taungoo Empire (1580)
Burma-Burma in British India-IND 004723
Burma in British India
IND 004723
Burma-Taungoo and colonialism-Shwedagon pagoda
Taungoo and colonialism
Shwedagon pagoda
Burma-Burma in British India-British forces arrival mandalay1885
Burma in British India
British forces arrival mandalay1885
Burma-Independence (1948–1962)-Sao Shwe Thaik and Hubert Elvin Rance
Independence (1948–1962)
Sao Shwe Thaik and Hubert Elvin Rance
Burma-Military rule (1962–2011)-8888 Uprising
Military rule (1962–2011)
8888 Uprising
Burma-Military rule (1962–2011)-2007 Myanmar protests 7
Military rule (1962–2011)
2007 Myanmar protests 7
Burma-Democratic reforms-Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton at home of Aung San Suu Kyi
Democratic reforms
Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton at home of Aung San Suu Kyi
Burma-Military rule (1962–2011)-Cyclone Nargis -Myanmar-3May2008
Military rule (1962–2011)
Cyclone Nargis -Myanmar-3May2008
Burma-Democratic reforms-Burma en
Democratic reforms
Burma en
Burma-Geography-Un-myanmar
Geography
Un-myanmar
Burma-Geography-Myanmar (Burma) map of Köppen climate classification
Geography
Myanmar (Burma) map of Köppen climate classification
Burma-Government and politics-Myanmar-Lower-House-Parliament
Government and politics
Myanmar-Lower-House-Parliament
Burma-Climate-MonStateMudon
Climate
MonStateMudon
Burma-Foreign relations-U Thant (1963)
Foreign relations
U Thant (1963)
Burma-Foreign relations-Obama-thein-sein
Foreign relations
Obama-thein-sein
Burma-Military-Conflict areas in Myanmar
Military
Conflict areas in Myanmar
Burma-Genocide allegations and crimes against Rohingya people-Displaced Rohingya people in Rakhine State (8280610831)
Genocide allegations and crimes against ...
Displaced Rohingya people in Rakhine State (8280610831)
Burma-Human rights and internal conflicts-Mae La refugee camp2
Human rights and internal conflicts
Mae La refugee camp2
Burma-Military-Myanmar Air Force MiG-29 MRD
Military
Myanmar Air Force MiG-29 MRD
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