Map - Lebanon

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Lebanon

Flag of Lebanon
Lebanon (لبنان ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic (الجمهورية اللبنانية ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km 2 (4,036 sq. mi.), it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.

The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. 1550–539 BC). In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.

The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence. Foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years.

Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking. Because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, and its capital, Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf. Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League (1945), the Non-Aligned Movement (1961), Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (1969) and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie (1973).

The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn (𐤋𐤁𐤍) meaning "white", apparently from its snow-capped peaks.

Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn (𓂋𓏠𓈖𓈖𓈉), where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן.

Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit (as opposed to the mountain range) was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı), continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير ; État du Grand Liban) in 1920, and eventually in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon (الجمهورية اللبنانية ) upon its independence in 1943.

 
Currency / Language 
ISO Currency Symbol Significant figures
LBP Lebanese pound لل 2
ISO Language
AR Arabic language
HY Armenian language
EN English language
FR French language
Neighbourhood - Country  

Map - Lebanon

Latitude / Longitude : 33° 49' 60" N / 35° 49' 60" E | Time zone : UTC+2:0 / UTC+3 | Currency : LBP | Telephone : 961  

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Photograph

Lebanon-Maronites, Druze, and the Crusades-Siege of Tripoli Painting (1289)
Maronites, Druze, and the Crusades
Siege of Tripoli Painting (1289)
Lebanon-Ancient Lebanon-PhoenicianTrade
Ancient Lebanon
PhoenicianTrade
Lebanon-Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate-DeirAlQamar-FakhredinePalace
Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate
DeirAlQamar-FakhredinePalace
Lebanon-Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate-Lebanon as envisaged by French General Charles-Marie-Napoléon de Beaufort d'Hautpoul Beaufort d'Hautpoul in 1862
Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate
Lebanon as envisaged by French General Charles-Marie-Napoléon de Beaufort d'Hautpoul Beaufort d'Hau...
Lebanon-Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate-Centre-ville de Beyrouth
Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate
Centre-ville de Beyrouth
Lebanon-Civil war and Syrian occupation-Green Line, Beirut 1982
Civil war and Syrian occupation
Green Line, Beirut 1982
Lebanon-Independence from France-Beirut's Martyrs' Square during celebrations marking the release by the French of Lebanon's government from Rashayya prison on November 22, 1943, the day of Lebanon's independence. Adib Ibrahim
Independence from France
Beirut's Martyrs' Square during celebrations marking the release by the French of Lebanon's governme...
Lebanon-Syrian withdrawal and aftermath-Demonstration 14 March 2005 31
Syrian withdrawal and aftermath
Demonstration 14 March 2005 31
Lebanon-Geography-Qadisha
Geography
Qadisha
Lebanon-Geography-Satellite image of Lebanon in March 2002
Geography
Satellite image of Lebanon in March 2002
Lebanon-Government and politics-BeirutParliament
Government and politics
BeirutParliament
Lebanon-Environment-Cedars02(js)
Environment
Cedars02(js)
Lebanon-Government and politics-Beirut protest
Government and politics
Beirut protest
Lebanon-Military-Lebanese Armed Forces
Military
Lebanese Armed Forces
Lebanon-Economy-Lebanon Export Treemap
Economy
Lebanon Export Treemap
Lebanon-Governorates and districts-Baalbek-109927
Governorates and districts
Baalbek-109927
Lebanon-History-Lebanese real GDP Growth in %
History
Lebanese real GDP Growth in %
Lebanon-Tourism-Baalbek - temple of Jupiter
Tourism
Baalbek - temple of Jupiter
Lebanon-Tourism-Anjar-109900
Tourism
Anjar-109900
Lebanon-Demographics-Tripoli, Lebanon (5074428682)
Demographics
Tripoli, Lebanon (5074428682)
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