Currency - Indian rupee

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Indian rupee

The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa), though as of 2018, coins of denomination of 50 paise or half rupee is the lowest value in use. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

In 2012, a new rupee symbol '', was officially adopted. It was designed by D. Udaya Kumar. It was derived from the combination of the Devanagari consonant "र" (ra) and the Latin capital letter "R" without its vertical bar (similar to the R rotunda). The parallel lines at the top (with white space between them) are said to make an allusion to the tricolour Indian flag, and also depict an equality sign that symbolises the nation's desire to reduce economic disparity. The first series of coins with the new rupee symbol started in circulation on 8 July 2011. Before this India used to use Rs for plural and Re to depict one rupee.

On 8 November 2016 the Government of India announced the demonetisation of 500 and 1000 banknotes with effect from midnight of the same day, making these notes invalid. A newly redesigned series of 500 banknote, in addition to a new denomination of 2000 banknote is in circulation since 10 November 2016. 1000 has been suspended.

On 25 August 2017, a new denomination of ₹200 banknote was added to Indian currency to fill the gap of notes due to high demand for this note after demonetisation.

In July 2018, the Reserve Bank of India released the ₹100 banknote.

The word "rupee" was derived from the Sanskrit word and Hindustani (meaning "wrought silver, a coin of silver"). Panini characterised as a stamped (which means a form in general, but probably a silver form in this case). Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya (c 340–290 BCE), mentions silver coins as. Other types of coins including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are also mentioned.

The history of the Indian rupee traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BCE, ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters.

Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya (c. 340–290 BCE), mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types including gold coins (suvarṇarūpa), copper coins (tamrarūpa) and lead coins (sīsarūpa) are mentioned. Rūpa means form or shape, example, rūpyarūpa, rūpya – wrought silver, rūpa – form.

During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, Sultan Sher Shah Suri issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains (or 11.53 grams), which was termed the Rupiya. During Babar's time, the brass to silver exchange ratio was roughly 50:2. The silver coin remained in use during the Mughal period, Maratha era as well as in British India. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees include; the Bank of Hindustan (1770–1832), the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (1773–75, established by Warren Hastings), and the Bengal Bank (1784–91).

Historically, the rupee was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard. The discovery of large quantities of silver in the United States and several European colonies resulted in a decline in the value of silver relative to gold, devaluing India's standard currency. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee."

Country

Bhutan

Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan' ( Druk Gyal Khap''), is a landlocked country in South Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, and the states of Assam and West Bengal in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center.

The independence of Bhutan has endured for centuries and it has never been colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a distinct national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire. Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with China. In 2008, Bhutan transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan. The National Assembly of Bhutan is part of the bicameral parliament of the Bhutanese democracy.

India

India (ISO: ), also known as the Republic of India (ISO: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as Southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947.

Language

Indian rupee (English)  Rupia indiana (Italiano)  Indiase roepie (Nederlands)  Roupie indienne (Français)  Indische Rupie (Deutsch)  Rupia indiana (Português)  Индийская рупия (Русский)  Rupia india (Español)  Rupia indyjska (Polski)  印度盧比 (中文)  Indisk rupie (Svenska)  Rupie indiană (Română)  インド・ルピー (日本語)  Індійська рупія (Українська)  Индийска рупия (Български)  인도 루피 (한국어)  Intian rupia (Suomi)  Rupee India (Bahasa Indonesia)  Indijos rupija (Lietuvių)  Indiske rupier (Dansk)  Indická rupie (Česky)  Hindistan rupisi (Türkçe)  Индијска рупија (Српски / Srpski)  India ruupia (Eesti)  Indická rupia (Slovenčina)  Indiai rúpia (Magyar)  Indijska rupija (Hrvatski)  รูปีอินเดีย (ไทย)  Indijas rūpija (Latviešu)  Ρουπία Ινδίας (Ελληνικά)  Rupee Ấn Độ (Tiếng Việt) 
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