Map - Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar Hot)

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Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar Hot)

Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1300 m in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.

The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. It settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778. Prior to that occasion it changed location twenty-eight times, each new location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.

Ulaanbaatar has been given numerous names in its history. Before 1911, the official name was Ikh Khüree (Их Хүрээ, "Great Settlement") or Daa Khüree (Даа Хүрээ, dà, "great"), or simply Khüree. The Chinese equivalent, Dà kùlún (大庫倫), was rendered into Western languages as "Kulun" or "Kuren".

Upon independence in 1911, with both the secular government and the Bogd Khan's palace present, the city's name changed to Niĭslel Khüree (Нийслэл Хүрээ, "Capital Camp"). It is called Bogdiin Khuree (Богдын Хүрээ, Bogdiĭn Khüree, "Great Holy Khan's Monastery") in the folk song "Praise of Bogdiin Khuree". In western languages, the city at that time was most often referred to as Urga (from Өргөө, Örgöö, "Palace").

When the city became the capital of the new Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, its name was changed to Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, Ulaanbaatar, classical Mongolian Ulaganbagatur, literally "Red Hero"). On the session of the 1st Great People's Khuraldaan of Mongolia in 1924, a majority of delegates expressed their wish to change the capital city's name to Baatar Khot ("Hero City"). However, under pressure from Turar Ryskulov, a Soviet activist of the Communist International, the city was named Ulaanbaatar Khot ("City of Red Hero").

In Europe and North America, Ulaanbaatar continued to be generally known as Urga or Khure until 1924, and afterward as Ulan Bator (a spelling derived from Улан-Батор, Ulan-Bator). The Russian spelling ("Улан-Батор") is the Russian phonetic equivalent of the Mongolian name, according to Russian spelling conventions. This form was defined two decades before the Mongolian name got its current Cyrillic script spelling and 'Ulaanbaatar' transliteration (1941–1950); however, the name of the city was spelled Ulaanbaatar koto during the decade in which Mongolia used the Latin alphabet. Today, English speakers sometimes refer to the city as UB.


Map - Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar Hot)

Latitude / Longitude : 47° 55' 0" N / 106° 55' 0" E | Time zone : UTC+8 | Currency : MNT | Telephone : 976  


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Ulan Bator-Names and etymology-Ulaghanbaghatur
Names and etymology
Ulan Bator-Before 1639-WangKhanRuins
Before 1639
Ulan Bator-Mobile monastery-Consulate of the Russian Empire in Urgoo
Mobile monastery
Consulate of the Russian Empire in Urgoo
Ulan Bator-Mobile monastery-OldPaintingUrga
Mobile monastery
Ulan Bator-Urga and the Kyakhta trade-Урга, 1891
Urga and the Kyakhta trade
Урга, 1891
Ulan Bator-Urga and the Kyakhta trade-Jugder3
Urga and the Kyakhta trade
Ulan Bator-Independence and socialist era-San Duo
Independence and socialist era
San Duo
Ulan Bator-Independence and socialist era-1913 in Khuree
Independence and socialist era
1913 in Khuree
Ulan Bator-Independence and socialist era-Dzah
Independence and socialist era
Ulan Bator-Independence and socialist era-FoliageUB7
Independence and socialist era
Ulan Bator-Geography and climate-Ulaanbaatar city Mongolia.ogv
Geography and climate
Ulaanbaatar city Mongolia.ogv
Ulan Bator-Administration and subdivisions-Ulan Bator subdivisions
Administration and subdivisions
Ulan Bator subdivisions
Ulan Bator-Winter Palace-Winter Palace Bogd Khan 149185394 bfcc8db25b b
Winter Palace
Winter Palace Bogd Khan 149185394 bfcc8db25b b
Ulan Bator-Museums-Bogd Khan Palace 19
Bogd Khan Palace 19
Ulan Bator-Chinggis (Sükhbaatar) Square-UB downtown
Chinggis (Sükhbaatar) Square
UB downtown
Ulan Bator-Arts and culture-National Dance
Arts and culture
National Dance
Ulan Bator-Arts and culture-GorkhiTereljNationalPark
Arts and culture
Ulan Bator-Embassies and consulates-Street Cycling
Embassies and consulates
Street Cycling
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Municipal symbols
Ulan Bator-Transport-Kina og Mongolia 2008 683
Kina og Mongolia 2008 683
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Country - Mongolia

Flag of Mongolia
Mongolia ( Mongol Uls in Mongolian Cyrillic; Mongγol Ulus [transliterated] in Mongolian script) is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 km separates them.

At 1564116 km2, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar also shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow, Ottawa, and Nur-Sultan.
Currency / Language  
ISO Currency Symbol Significant figures
MNT Mongolian tögrög 2
ISO Language
MN Mongolian language
RU Russian language
Neighbourhood - Country  
  •  China 
  •  Russia 

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