Language - Tongan language

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Tongan language

Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga. It has around 180,000 speakers and is a national language of Tonga. It is a VSO (verb–subject–object) language.

Tongan is one of the multiple languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan and Tahitian, for example. Together with Niuean, it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian.

Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called definitive accent. As with all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian.

* 1) Tongan has retained the original proto-Polynesian *h, but has merged it with the original *s as . (The found in modern Tongan derives from *t before high front vowels). Most Polynesian languages have lost the original proto-Polynesian glottal stop ; however, it has been retained in Tongan and a few other languages including Rapa Nui.

* 2) In proto-Polynesian, *r and *l were distinct phonemes, but in most Polynesian languages they have merged, represented orthographically as r in most East Polynesian languages, and as l in most West Polynesian languages. However, the distinction can be reconstructed because Tongan kept the *l but lost the *r.

Country

American Samoa

American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa, ; also Amelika Sāmoa or Sāmoa Amelika) is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. Its location is centered around 14.2710° S, 170.1322° W. It is on the eastern border of the International Date Line, while independent Samoa is west of it.

American Samoa consists of five main islands and two coral atolls. The largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manua Islands, Rose Atoll, and Swains Island also included in the territory. All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles (500 km) south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group.

Tonga

Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian country and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 km2 scattered over 700000 km2 of the southern Pacific Ocean. The sovereign state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu.

Tonga stretches across approximately 800 km in a north-south line. It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west. It is about 1800 km from New Zealand's North Island.

Language

Tongan language (English)  Lingua tongana (Italiano)  Tongaans (Nederlands)  Tongien (Français)  Tongaische Sprache (Deutsch)  Língua tonganesa (Português)  Тонганский язык (Русский)  Idioma tongano (Español)  Język tonga (Polski)  湯加語 (中文)  Tonganska (Svenska)  トンガ語 (日本語)  Тонганська мова (Українська)  Тонгански език (Български)  통가어 (한국어)  Tongan kieli (Suomi)  Bahasa Tonga (Bahasa Indonesia)  Tongiečių kalba (Lietuvių)  Tongánština (Česky)  Tonga keel (Eesti)  Tongčina (Slovenčina)  Tongai nyelv (Magyar)  Tonganski jezik (Hrvatski)  ภาษาตองงา (ไทย)  Tongiešu valoda (Latviešu)  Tiếng Tonga (Tiếng Việt) 
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