Language - Fijian language

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Fijian language

Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians as a native language. The 2013 Constitution established Fijian as an official language of Fiji, along with English and Hindi, and there is discussion about establishing it as the "national language", though English and Hindi would remain official. Fijian is a VOS language.

Standard Fijian is based on the speech of Bau, which is an East Fijian language. A pidginized form is used by many Indo-Fijians and ethnic Chinese on the islands, while Pidgin Hindustani is used by many rural ethnic Fijians.

The consonant phonemes of Fijian are as shown in the following table:

The consonant written has been described as a prenasalized trill or trilled fricative. However, it is only rarely pronounced with a trilled release; the primary feature distinguishing it from is that it is postalveolar,, rather than dental/alveolar.

The sounds and occur only in loanwords from other languages. The sounds and only occur for speakers from certain regions of the country.

Note the difference in place of articulation between the voiced-voiceless fricative pairs: bilabial vs. labiodental, and dental vs. alveolar.

The vowel phonemes are:

In addition, there is the rising diphthong.

Syllables can consist of a consonant followed by a vowel (CV) or a single vowel (V). Word stress is based on moras: a short vowel is one mora, diphthongs and long vowels are two morae. Primary stress is on the penultimate mora of the phonological word. That is, if the last syllable of a word is short, then the penultimate syllable will be stressed, while if the last syllable contains either a long vowel or a diphthong, then it receives primary stress. Stress is not lexical and can shift when suffixes are attached to the root. Examples:

* Stress on the penultimate syllable (final short vowel): síga, "day";

Country

Fiji

Fiji (Viti ; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1100 nmi northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18300 km2. The most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of. The capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry —or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount. Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited.

The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago. Some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature (c. 35–60 degrees Celsius) surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and later Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, and, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as the Dominion of Fiji. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power. When the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister. Later in 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, and international observers deemed the election credible.

Language

Fijian language (English)  Lingua figiana (Italiano)  Fijisch (Nederlands)  Fidjien (Français)  Fidschi (Deutsch)  Língua fijiana (Português)  Фиджийский язык (Русский)  Idioma fiyiano (Español)  Język fidżyjski (Polski)  斐濟語 (中文)  Fijianska (Svenska)  フィジー語 (日本語)  Фіджійська мова (Українська)  Фиджийски език (Български)  피지어 (한국어)  Fidžin kieli (Suomi)  Bahasa Fiji (Bahasa Indonesia)  Fidžių kalba (Lietuvių)  Fidžijština (Česky)  Fiji dili (Türkçe)  Fidžijski jezik (Hrvatski)  ภาษาฟีจี (ไทย)  Fidžiešu valoda (Latviešu)  Tiếng Fiji (Tiếng Việt) 
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