Language - Sardinian language

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Sardinian language

Sardinian or Sard (sardu/sadru, limba sarda or língua sarda ) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia. Many Romance linguists consider it the closest genealogical descendant to Latin. However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political membership of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.

In 1997, Sardinian was recognized by a regional law, along with other languages spoken on the island; since 1999, Sardinian is also one of the twelve "historical language minorities" of Italy, being granted recognition by the national Law no. 482/1999. However, the vitality of the Sardinian-speaking community is threatened and UNESCO classifies the language as "definitely endangered", although an estimated 68.4 percent of the islanders reported to have a good oral command of Sardinian in 2007. While the level of language competence is in fact relatively high among the older generation beyond retirement age, it has been estimated to have dropped to less than 13 percent among children, with Sardinian being kept as a heritage language.

"Serbo-Croatian"

- Max Leopold Wagner

Sardinian is considered the most conservative Romance language, and its substratum (Paleo-Sardinian or Nuragic) has also been researched. A 1949 study by Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): Sardinian 8%, Italian 12%, Spanish 20%, Romanian 23.5%, Occitan 25%, Portuguese 31%, and French 44%. For example, Latin "Pone mihi tres panes in bertula" (put three loaves of bread [from home] in the bag for me) would be the very similar "Ponemi tres panes in bertula" in Sardinian. Compared to the mainland Italian dialects, Sardinian is virtually incomprehensible for Italians, being actually considered a linguistic group of its own among the Romance languages.

Country

Italy

Italy (Italia ), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana ), is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301340 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. The Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, and the Republic eventually expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural, political and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy, art and literature flourished. Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the Roman Empire. The legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, law, governments, Christianity and the Latin script.

Language

Sardinian language (English)  Lingua sarda (Italiano)  Sardijns (Nederlands)  Sarde (Français)  Sardische Sprache (Deutsch)  Língua sarda (Português)  Сардинский язык (Русский)  Idioma sardo (Español)  Język sardyński (Polski)  薩丁尼亞語 (中文)  Sardiska (Svenska)  Limba sardă (Română)  サルデーニャ語 (日本語)  Сардинська мова (Українська)  Сардински език (Български)  사르데냐어 (한국어)  Sardi (Suomi)  Bahasa Sardinia (Bahasa Indonesia)  Sardų kalba (Lietuvių)  Sardisk (Dansk)  Sardinština (Česky)  Sarduca (Türkçe)  Сардински језик (Српски / Srpski)  Sardínčina (Slovenčina)  Szárd nyelv (Magyar)  Sardinski jezici (Hrvatski)  Sardīniešu valoda (Latviešu)  Tiếng Sardegna (Tiếng Việt) 
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